Why water is so critical, different levels of dehydration and symptoms
What are electrolytes, water balance in the body, and the thirst mechanism
The relationship between sweat rate, sodium loss, blood volume, and heat illness
Physiological need for sodium and current sodium intake
Why endurance athletes may need more than “drink to thirst”
What is the optimal level of (de)hydration for performance
How to determine your best hydration strategy
American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. 2007.
Armstrong, 2021. Hydration to protect against 2-3% dehydration.
Beis, 2012. Dubai marathon winner at 9.8% dehydration.
Campbell et al., 2015. Sodium in Ancestral Diets.
Noakes et al., 2004. Some of the best Ironman times had greater than 5% dehydration.
Zouhal et al., 2011. Best times were >3% dehydration in France marathon.